A country's income per worker converges to a country-specific long-run level as determined by the structural characteristics of that country.
Limitations[ edit ] The fact that a country is poor does not guarantee that catch-up growth will be achieved. This often traps countries in a low-efficiency cycle whereby the most efficient technology is too expensive to be acquired.
The literature on globalization has several threads. Some studies found no relationship between female labor-force participation and level of industrialization Ferber and Lowry ; Safilios-Rothchildthough there is strong evidence of a trend toward increasing female participation in nonagricultural employment among advanced industrial societies Paydarfar ; Wilensky along with the existence of dual labor markets stratified by sex, a pattern found in both communist and capitalist nations in the s Cooney ; Bibb and Form ; Lapidus Inkeles argues that earlier versions of convergence theory failed to distinguish adequately between different elements of the social system, which is problematic because these elements not only change at different speeds, but may move in opposite directions.
It does not explain why some nations have had zero growth for many decades e. A hypothesis by economic historians Kenneth Sokoloff and Stanley Engerman suggested that factor endowments are a central determinant of structural inequality that impedes institutional development in some countries.
The core notion of convergence theory is that as nations achieve similar levels of economic development they will become more alike in terms of these and other aspects of social life.
Finally, with respect to women in the labor force, the evidence of convergence is mixed.
Counterposed against these factors are various sources of uniformity, such as technological change, exposure to the industrial world, and a worldwide trend toward increased access to education leading to an attenuation of social and economic inequality.
In the third stage, fertility rates begin to decline, with total size of the population leveling off or even decreasing.
Synthesis of ionic liquids Convergence - definition of convergence by The Free … Competing theories of convergence and diversity are examined through the disciplinary perspectives of history and politics, law and regulation, culture, and institutional complementarities.
The attempt to discover common features of the class structure across advanced industrial societies is a central concern for social theorists of many stripes.
These characteristics led Dorefor example, to argue vigorously against the convergence hypothesis for Japan. Appropriately reformulated, focused on elements of the social system amenable to empirical study, and stripped of the ideological baggage associated with its earlier versions, convergence theories hold promise to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes and regularities of social change.
Although the authors did not specifically mention convergence, their conclusions were fully consistent with the idea of emergent similarities. Other aspects of the family, such as age at first marriage, appear to present a more complex picture, with short-term fluctuations obscuring long-term changes, and great variation from one culture to another.
As a result, countries with relative equality and access to public education grew faster and were able to converge on countries with inequality and limited education.
However important and wide-ranging, the precise patterns that will ultimately emerge from these technological innovations are not yet clear. The gradual abolition of restrictions on trade, the movement of labor, and travel among EU nations and not least of all the establishment of a single currency inand the harmonization of social policies throughout the EU, all signal profound changes toward growing convergence in the region that promises to continue into the twenty-first century.
These include an ability to absorb new technology, attract capital and participate in global markets. Finally, he specifies the different forms convergence and divergence may take: Structural-functionalist theorists, such as Parsons and Daviswhile not actually employing the terminology of convergence theory, paved the way for its development and use in modernization studies through their efforts to develop a systematic statement of the functional prerequisites and structural imperatives of modern industrial society; these include an occupational structure based on achievement rather than ascription, and the common application of universalistic rather than particularistic evaluative criteria.
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Dual Convergence or Hybridization? Institutional Change in Italy and Greece from the Varieties of Capitalism Perspective.
convergence theories The idea that societies move toward a condition of similarity —that they converge in one or more respects—is a common feature of various theories of social change. Convergence theory presumes that as nations move from the early stages of industrialization toward becoming fully industrialized, they begin to resemble other industrialized societies in terms of societal norms and technology.
The characteristics of these nations effectively converge. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. * Mechanical, engineering * Implications in relation to globalization: breaks with the hyper-globalization thesis according to which the common pressures generated by globalization lead to convergence on one (liberal) model of capitalism * Rather advocate: dual convergence thesis.
Lockouts Down Under in Comparative Perspective Globalization, the State, and Employer Militancy economic arrangements with globalization. Certainly, the dual convergence thesis accurately captures the key differences between and general direction VOC/dual convergence literature.Dual-convergence thesis